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      Holding policy-makers to account: exploring 'soft' and 'hard' policy and the implications for curriculum reform

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            Abstract

            Curriculum implementation as both an educational practice and a policy conundrum has been the focus of academic research since the 1970s. A new perspective is taken in this article by borrowing from the literature on policy implementation in multilevel systems of government. The concepts of 'hard' and 'soft' policy are used to show that policy-makers choose from a range of strategies and it is these choices rather than teacher attitudes that may account for the level of implementation of a policy. A case study of curriculum implementation in Hong Kong is used to show how 'hard' and 'soft' policy can be identified in practice.

            Content

            Author and article information

            Journal
            10430
            London Review of Education
            IOE Press
            1474-8460
            01 March 2011
            : 9
            : 1
            : 41-54
            Article
            1474-8460(20110301)9:1L.41;1- s5.phd /ioep/clre/2011/00000009/00000001/art00005
            10.1080/14748460.2011.550433
            e56b6f77-8c79-4873-b668-7376f521d6a0
            Copyright @ 2011
            History
            Categories
            Articles

            Education,Assessment, Evaluation & Research methods,Educational research & Statistics,General education
            CURRICULUM IMPLEMENTATION,CURRICULUM POLICY,CURRICULUM REFORM

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