International large-scale assessments such as the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) yield comparative indicators of student achievement in various competence domains. This article focuses on global competence as a suggested cross-curricular domain for the PISA 2018 study. The measurement of global competence is related to a number of challenges, which are elaborated, described and discussed. As these challenges have so far not been sufficiently targeted, Germany, among several other countries, has decided not to assess global competence in the upcoming PISA cycle. In conclusion, propositions are made regarding viable options to capture global competence in international comparative studies so that established quality standards can be met.