Amidst growing recognition of the importance of the learning process within global citizenship education, this paper develops a pedagogical framework including dimensions of critical thinking, dialogue, reflection, and responsible being/action. It draws on a variety of critical literatures to identify characteristics of each of these dimensions. The second part of this paper begins to demonstrate how this framework might be used as an analytical approach in research and evaluation. It draws on observational examples from doctoral research in one English secondary school to identify aspects of critical thinking, dialogue, and reflection in practice, the strategies teachers use to foster these, and the challenges they may face. With development, the framework has potential for application in future research and evaluation into the complex teaching and learning processes involved in global citizenship education.